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It is useful to refer to established standards to be assured that a system offers a certain level of security and can be relied upon to guarantee this level of security. The current standards TCSEC [tcsec] and ITSEC [itsec] are basically military standards, increasingly being adopted in the commercial world (see Appendix C for details on these and other emerging standards such as TTAP and Common Criteria). Another useful reference is the IT Baseline protection manual from the German equivalent of the NSA, the BSI (Bundesamt fuer Sicherheit in der Informatik). It can be accessed online, or a CD can be had for free.
Even if a system is evaluated to a certain level (e.g. TCSEC C2), it still requires careful configuration, monitoring and organisation processes for it to be considered "secure" in a real production environment. Don't attach too much importance to the "label" C2 for it's own sake. It is often used as a sales pitch without real substance. E.g. a system may offer "C2 auditing", but that doesn't mean that the audit logs are useful, or that tools for high level analysis of these logs are included in the system, or that anyone actually reads the logs!
The NSA have produced an interesting paper (Nov.'98) which argues that the threats posed by the modern computing environment cannot be addressed without secure operating systems. See csrc.nist.gov/nissc/1998/proceedings/paperF1.pdf .
See Appendix C or Trusted Product Evaluation Program for a more detailed discussion of TCSEC. C2 is the TCSEC level aimed for by most commercial operating systems.
A key notion in the TCSEC is the idea of a TCB (Trusted Computing Base). A TCB must provide: protection from interference with the TCB, address space separation, trusted path, least-privilege principle, continuity of operations.
The following shows a selected list of commercial, well known OS's evaluated by the NSA under TCSEC (see [nsa1]) in Spring 1996 (sorry, I don't have a newer list..).
|Trusted XENIX 3.0||B2||8.4.92||Unix OS. Trusted Information Systems.|
|Trusted XENIX 4.0||B2||17.9.93||Unix OS. Trusted Information Systems.|
|Harris CX/SX 6.2.1||B1||18.9.95||Unix OS. Networking is evaluated.|
|HP-UX BLS, 9.09+||B1||13.4.95||Unix OS. Standard HP-UX software can run on this system.|
|Trusted IRIX/B V4.0.5EPL||B1||6.2.95||Unix OS.|
|NT 3.5 Service Pk.3||C2||31.7.95||Proprietary OS. Microsoft. Networking and the Win16 subsystem are not evaluated.|
|Trusted Solaris V1.1||B1||7.10.94||CMW. Sun.|
|OpenVMS VAX V6.1||C2||14.7.95||Proprietary OS. DEC.|
|Digital Unix (OSF)||C2 ?||Unconfirmed.|
|Ultrix MLS+||B1||21.4.93||Proprietary OS. DEC.|
|AS/400 with OS/400 V2, R3, M0||C2||5.10.95||Proprietary OS. IBM.|
|NetWare 4 Server Component and Network System||C2||under eval.||Networking is being evaluated. Novell.|
|OS 1100/2200 Release SB4R7||B1||20.4..94||Proprietary OS. Unisys.|
|CA-ACF2 R6.1 with MVS/ESA||C2||14.7.95||Proprietary OS. Computer Associates & IBM.|
|CA-ACF2 R6.1 with CA MAC and MVS/ESA||B1||14.7.95||Proprietary OS. Computer Associates & IBM.|
The ITSEC (see [itsec] and [itsem]) is described in detail in Appendix C. It is a European alternative to TCSEC and more complete.
ITSEC separates functionality and assurance. There are assurance levels E1 through E6. It defines example functionality classes F-C1, C2, B1, B2, B3 which correspond to the TCSEC classes and the new classes IN, AV, DI, DC and DX which are interesting because they include networking (which is missing from TCSEC). The ITSEC and TCSEC correspond as follows:
E1, F-C1 == C1
E2, F-C2 == C2
E3, F-B1 == B1
E4, F-B2 == B2
E5, F-B3 == B3
E6, F-B3 == A1
ITSEC defines the following functionality classes in addition to TCSEC:
IN This class is for systems with high integrity requirements for data & programs.
AV This class is for systems with high availability functions.
DI This class is for systems with high integrity requirements for data transmission.
DC This class is for systems with high confidentiality requirements for data transmission.
DX This class is for systems with high integrity & confidentilaity requirements for data
ITSEC suggest that requirements be analysed under the headings: Accountability, Identification & Authentication, Audit, Object Reuse, Access Control, Accuracy, Data Exchange and Reliability of Service. Mechanism or countermeasure strength is defined as being basic, medium or high.
|Novell Trusted Netware 4||E2 F-C2||pending|
|Banyan Vines||E2 F-C2||pending|
|Argus B1/CMW||E3 F-B1||Sept.99||Add-on product for Solaris2.4 (Argus also have Pit Bull planned sor Solaris 7 and 8)|
|Argus C2/TMW||E3 F-C2||Sept.99||Add-on product for Solaris 2.4|
|Harris Secure UNIX||E3 F-C2 B1, B2||pending|
|Trusted Solaris 2.5.1||E3 F-B1||Sep.98|
|Solaris 2.6||E3 F-C2||Jan.99|
|Microsoft NT4 SP3||E3 F-C2||Mar.99||
NT Workstation & NT Server. See Microsoft announcement, ITSEC Report, ITSEC Certificate.
|IBM Shield for AIX||E2 F-C2||pending||
Add-on product for AIX
|IBM CMW for AIX||E3 F-B1||pending||
Add-on product for AIX
|DEC MLS+ 3.1||E3 F-B1||Oct.96|
|HP-UX Version 10||E3 F-C2||Feb.99|
|SCO C2+||E3 F-C2||pending|
|SCO CMW+||E3 F-B1||Sept.99|
The following is based on the author's experience, it is by no means an absolute reference:
|Operating System||Security in default configuration||How secure can it be made?||Notes|
|Windows / DOS||none||Minimal||Nightmare! ;-}|
|Windows 95||none||Minimal||Restrictive system and user policies in a networked environment can close many, but not all holes.|
|Windows NT||3.5 good, 3.51 better.
|Very good?||Promising, but still newish .... Nice auditing & logging
features. Passwords are encrypted during transmission (though imperfectly). The
chief weaknesses discovered in recent years were buffer overflows, denial of service
attacks and bad design/ implementation on the application level (IIS & Browsers in
Having to reboot it during installs & major configuration changes makes it a pain for high availability (I've not tested the clustering yet).
Administration is via a GUI, but some functions are available on the command line (especially in the resource kit). Logon domain structure is flat not hierarchical. Not very compatible with UNIX.
|IBM AIX||good||very good||GUI for most admin tasks, but many tasks are difficult (AIX is very non standard). Patches not publicly available, little public discussion of problems (this is a bad thing!). Security patches have been made available in Switzerland 2 months after they were released in the USA!! However AIX has some good security features (e.g. ACLs), especially V4.1 with NETSP..|
|weak||unknown||Ultrix: DEC's old version of UNIX was very open (insecure).
OSF: Author has little experience, but has noted that OSF/1.3 had a default tftp configuration which is not secure.
|Digital UNIX||good?||TBD||Later versions of OSF are called Digital UNIX. It can be configured as "C2 conform" during installation.|
|HP-UX||average/good||very good||C2 is possible. Utilities like predictiv and remwatch allow regular security checking. The tcp_wrappers are fully integrated in inetd.sec.|
|Sun Solaris 1.x||weak||pretty good||BSD based, "university standard". Patch management difficult, no shadow passwords.|
|Sun Solaris 2.x||good||very good||SVR4 based, "commercial standard". Much more secure than
Solaris 1.x (SunOS). Administration easier. Security patches are well distributed, lots of
knowledge on the Internet. C2 and security monitoring software is delivered as standard.
Good clustering software. V7 has lots of new kernel parameters for defending agains
DoS attacks and Buffer Overflows. V8 even has a free local firewall (Sunscreen)
Free for workstations and small servers (Solaris 8).
Solaris is the predominant commerical UNIX OS.
|Linux (S.U.S.E 6.1)||good||very good||Linux has come along way, it is the platform of choice for many. Administration is easier (YAST tool). Easier to install (but could be easier!). Security patches are well distributed, lots of knowledge on the Internet. Cheap. Recommended, but disable unneeded services and keep patches for services exported to the Internet up-to-date. (e.g. IMAP, POP3, DNS, HTTP). Security tools such as tripwire and SSH are bundled with Suse.|
|OpenBSD||A BSD derivative that has been thoroughly analysed for beffer
overflows etc. Security is a key element of this OS. Many security tools are bundled (NAT,
filtering, Ipsec, OpenSSL). Crypto is internationally strong, since it is based in Canada.
Available for many architecture form PC to SPARC.
Recommended: I've used OpenBSD on SPARC with Apache & it seems to work well. Some tools don't want to compile, other are well supported in the ports tree.
A project to product a B1 version of FreeBSD is underway. See www.TrustedBSD.com .
Links: Hardening, OpenBSD Tools
Naming systems: NIS+ or DCE are much more secure than NIS, but also more complex. See the UNIX chapter and the Firewalls chapter.
SVR4.1 ES (Enhanced Security): Multi level Security (MLS) MLS is an (AT&T) add on to an underlying SVR4 UNIX system. Some kernel modules and utilities are replaced, but kernel data structure changes are minimal. Mandatory access control (MAC) is implemented (using UID, GID). Auditing tools are also included.
NT still is relatively young, but Microsoft seem to be moving away from their traditional stance of Security through Obscurity - they now publish regular security advisories. They still insist on not following crypto standards where possible (e.g. PKCS#11, IPsec) and don't submit code for peer review, so NT is not (yet) recommended for class or above. However NT is advancing faster than UNIX and it's security architecture is good. It may become the OS to beat in the coming years...... if Microsoft can resit the temptation of messing up the OS by integrating Internet Explorer..
On the other hand Linux has become stable, fast and feature rich and Sun are offering Solaris 8 free (with a bundles Firewall), so the future will be interesting.
I suppose you've guessed that my favourites are Solaris, Linux & NT. In fact, the best thing about Solaris is the solid SPARC hardware with it's intelligent boot prom.
For a comparison on NT and UNIX from the developers
perspecitive see AdNovum's article,
NT is certainly not a "toy operating system" (anymore). Although it does not scale very well ... (Performance decreases with more than 4 processors/server) it should yield satisfactory performance for small businesses with fewer than 250 user accounts that do not run mission critical processes. Beside fundamental scalability issues, manageability and availability remain the critical issues.
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